"The site of Khairadih having an imposing mound was excavated horizontally for
several seasons by archaeologists of Banaras Hindu University. An extensive habitation
with strong socio-cultural set-up with vibrant techno-economic activities was unearthed in
excavations conduted for several seasons. The present report on the excavations gives a
comprehensive account on life and culture during the proto-historic-early historic period.
The unique contribution of these excavations is evidence of technological activities in
form of full-fledged workshops - complete with kilns, furnaces and forges, etc. revealing
information on ceramic technology, glass working, metallurgy and coinage.
This report emphasizes on scientific and analytical study of archaeomaterials belonging
to early-historic period in the Middle Ganga Plain. Taking cognizance of technological
achievements unearthed archaeologically, the present work attempts to evaluate the social
response to technological developments. The social organization in the form of the `varna
system' echoed in the social hierarchy perceptible in the specialized craft production.
This process contributed in a big way to urbanization of Ganga Plain which evolved as
`area of attraction' giving rise to emergence of the `Mahajanapadas' by the sixth century
BCE. In light of Khairadih excavations, issues like pattern of adaptation of technology,
growing technological innovations and their wider social-cultural and politico-economic
ramifications have been closely evaluated in the larger context of socio-cultural life of
the Ganga Plain here."
List of Illustrations
2. Cuttings and Structural Remains
3. The Ceramics
5. Analytical Study of Archaeomaterials from Khairadih
6. Retrospection and Conclusion: Khairadih: A Prosperous Sunga-Kusana Township in the